Biogeographic Regions of India
India is a vast subcontinent with widespread and variations in soil, climate, vegetation diversity. Due to the above variations, different types of flora are also found in different regions of India.
India lies between latitude 6-30 ° N. Climate and vegetation of alpine to equatorial type are found here. In terms of plant geological studies, many plant geographers have divided India into different regions. Hooker and Thomson first studied in 1855 on the basis of territorial variation.
Hooker divided India into 8 botanical regions after his botanical studies. Therefore, India can be divided into the following regions on the basis of vegetation.
(1) Western Himalayan region, (2) Eastern Himalayan region, (3) Indus plain, (4) Gangetic plain, (5) Malabar region, (6) Deccan region of the southern region, (7) Maldives and Sri Lanka, and (8) Brahma.
Geographically, on the basis of vegetation, the following 7 types of vegetation are found in India.
(1) Western Himalaya – The Himalayas are the highest mountain ranges in the world where all types of climate are available in terms of temperature and water. Due to this, many types of vegetation are found here. The western Himalayan region extends from Kumaon in Uttar Pradesh to Kashmir in the east. The vegetation is divided into three categories. This is (1) the sub mountain portion below, (2) the middle temperate or mountain portion, and (3) the alpine portion above.
In this region, semi-tropical and temperate forests are found. Trees like Sal, Dhaka, Semal, Tad, Amla, Peepal, Sheesham, Jamun, Ber, etc. are mostly found in the semi-tropical forests. Trees with broadleaf and pointed leaves are found in the tropical forests. Due to lack of rainfall and excess of cold in the lower parts, trees like pine, cedar, blue pine, birch, oak, etc. are found. Juniper, silver tax, and birch are found more in the mountainous forests. The ice field is found at a height of 5,000 meters.
(2) Eastern Himalayas – Eastern Himalayas extend from Sikkim to Upper Assam. It is bounded on the north by Tibet and on the south by Bengal. This region is more humid than the Western Himalayas. Evergreen forests are also found in this area. In this, trees like Sal, Chinoli, Sheesham, Khair, Semal, etc. are found. Major trees of oak, birch, and mavilla of the eastern Himalayas are found in the tropical forests.
Rozendron is found in the temperate region of the eastern Himalayas to a great extent. In the Alpine region in the eastern Himalayas, trees of Jubhiperous, Rosendron are found. There are grasslands on the upper part. Eastern Himalayan region is considered to be the confluence of three types of the flora of Chinese, Japanese, and Indian.
(3) Indus Sutlej Plains – This region includes Punjab, Western Rajasthan, and Aravali region and Northern Gujarat. Being a dry and hot region, vegetation is found only in limited areas. Vegetation is found on the slopes of the lower Himalayas and Aravallis. Trees of neem, rosewood, acacia, peepal, sycamore, fruit tree, eucalyptus, etc. are found in this region. In the desert areas, vegetation is found in the form of shrubs such as asker, plum, etc.
(4) The Gangetic Plains – This area of the entire land stretching to western Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Bengal is very fertile. Most of the land is cultivated here. The western part is dry and the eastern part receives more rainfall. The part of Haridwar plains of Uttaranchal is dry and the eastern part receives more rainfall.
On the plains of Haridwar in Uttaranchal, where the river leaves the mountains and enters the plains, Dalbarjia, Achesia, and some places of tamarisk trees are found. Shorea robusta also grows in considerable numbers.
The south-western part is drier and the lower terrain where capers, affila, Sackerammunja, Acacia arabica, etc. grow. The forest of deciduous trees is found in the eastern part of Vindhya ranges in Uttar Pradesh. Where main types of trees are found in Arjuna, Chironji, Tendu, Mahua, Babool, Amla, etc. Grasslands are found in open places in forests. Where mainly different types of grasses are found.
The forests are denser in the eastern region (Bihar and Bengal) due to excess water. Palm, dates, betel nuts, coconut trees are found here a lot. Due to the density of the population, there is a continuous decrease in forest areas. Numerous lotus-filled ponds are found here. At the eastern end are the mangroves and tidal forests of the Sundarbans, which are found in the tidal zone near the Ganges delta. Trees of Rhizophora and Abyssinia etc. are found in this area.
(5) Southern Peninsular part – Evergreen forests and elsewhere shrubby forests and monsoon deciduous forests are found in areas with more than 200 cm of rainfall. Sal in the north, teak in the intermediate parts, and white and red sandal and tun trees are found in the southern regions.
(6) Malabar Region – The land of the west coast from Gujarat to Kanyakumari is kept in this botanical region. Dense vegetation is found here due to the coast and the warm climate. Coconut, rubber, areca nut, cardamom, jackfruit, etc. are found in coastal areas. Tea and coffee cultivation are found in the upper parts. Teak and sandalwood trees are found in the eastern part of the eastern part. Evergreen forests are found in the western regions of the western part.
(7) Andaman and Nicobar Islands – This part is located in the southern-eastern Bay of Bengal in India. Most of the land is moist and fertile except for some dry places on these islands. Mangrove plants also grow quite here on the beach.
Paddy and sugarcane are cultivated here. Evergreen, semi-evergreen, marshy, and coastal forests are found here. Rubber, Bamboo, palm, and many types of vines are found here.